what is it and how to fix it in Windows XP, Vista, 7, 8 and 10
Critical errors in Windows operating systems are often the cause of the Blue Screen of Death (BSoD) initialization. The abbreviation stands for Blue Screen of Death. This name is accepted by Microsoft and is the official name. Such errors cause a complete system stop and require a computer restart. Continuing work is possible after restoring the integrity of the software or eliminating computer malfunctions at the hardware level. That is, the events that initialize the screen of death can be either software in nature or at the level of computer components.
Critical error messages have in their “body” some information about the cause and place of the problem, as well as provide small recommendations for troubleshooting. The “Technical information” section of the blue screen of death describes the error and its alphanumeric code. On the operating system support site, there is a decoding of codes and methods for their elimination, but it is worth noting that the information provided is very superficial and does not provide accurate methods for eliminating emergency situations. In the latest versions of Windows 10, a QR code appeared on the blue screen of death, and when scanned, you go to the Microsoft website in the support section, directly to the error page.
Table of Contents
Events and causes causing the screen of death
Hardware faults are often the culprit for blue screen initialization.
The occurrence of errors related to RAM has a fairly large percentage of the total number of hardware problems. The random access memory is designed in such a way that the memory cells of the chips are constantly overwritten with the stored information. Any microcircuit has a technological resource of such cycles, when used, the memory chip can incorrectly store information or change the contents of registers involuntarily. This is called physical aging.
The RAM may not be compatible with the motherboard. Even with the same interface, an old motherboard can lead to communication errors with new memory chips. This is due to the fact that when the board was created, there were no chips installed on the memory lines, and naturally the manufacturer could not support them. There are frequent cases of incorrect setting of the supply voltage and timings of the RAM in the BIOS of a computer. These reasons may be associated with incorrect “overclocking” of the computer.
Occurrence of errors associated with the video card
The video adapter may be the culprit for the BSoD. Hardware failures can be caused by incorrect power supply or the result of insufficient cooling of the video processor. The video implementation also includes RAM. Directly for organizing temporary image caching, it has exactly the same problems as with the main RAM. This is the aging of the cells of the chips or the incompatibility of new equipment with old implementations of other components. Errors due to overheating are associated with improper organization of the cooling system or its change during operation. For example, drying of heat-conducting components such as thermal grease or heat-conducting elastic pads.
Blue Screen of Death caused by CPU
The processor may be the reason for the initialization of an emergency in the system. Processor problems are similar to those of a graphics card. This is a violation of the temperature regime, poor fastening in the socket, the presence of oxides or a violation of the anti-corrosion coating of the terminals. Powering the processor can also cause the error. But there is one nuance here. Power errors can occur not only due to the power supply. A drop in the supply voltage can be caused by the processor harness. The strapping is represented by capacitors located on the motherboard in the power circuits, and not in the unit itself. During long-term operation, the electrolyte in polar capacitors tends to dry out, which violates the output voltage parameters. It is sometimes possible to identify changes visually. Capacitors that have lost their rated capacity often swell, that is, they change in shape. The solution to the problem is to replace the faulty items.
The processor also has built-in memory registers, which can be written with errors related to cell aging. In principle, this is an actual problem for any components with rewritable memory. Manufacturers solve this by repeatedly checking the rewritable information and calculating and monitoring checksums. Failures can also be caused by incorrectly set parameters of data transmission with other components of the computer system, that is, a difference in the frequency of the data bus. For example, increasing it during overclocking.
The computer’s power supply cannot cause the initialization of the blue screen of death, which would be described by a code. But errors of other devices caused by incorrect power supply can provoke. First of all, this is a power supply unit that is not designed for the load consumed by the system unit. It can also be the aging of the power supply itself, which does not provide an output current under load. This is due to the fact that some electronic components tend to change their parameters over time.
Hard drive problems
Errors caused by HDD can be of both software and hardware origin. Communication loops that do not provide high-quality data transfer are a common cause of the blue screen of death. These can be connection problems and poor-quality connectors. With prolonged operation and the presence of strong vibration of the computer from the cooling fans, microcracks in the solders can be provoked. Such malfunctions are difficult to detect, and they can be eliminated in the conditions of service centers.
Most common software errors
The errors listed above are those errors that are caused by hardware problems, that is, a malfunction of some computer components. But there are a number of bugs triggered by software issues. Unfortunately, it is impossible to infer from the alphanumeric code of the blue screen of death what kind of failure caused the error. For example, the code 0x0000007b inaccessible boot device can be either software or hardware failure notification. According to the record, we judge that the system cannot boot, but what exactly is it caused by, a broken loop or the absence of a device driver – there is no information whatsoever. In such situations, it is necessary to carry out a comprehensive examination of the computer, identifying the exact location and essence of the problem.
Another common error is 0x0000006b, but unlike 0x0000007b, it is only a software glitch and does not require hardware inspection when it appears. The reasons for which the Windows 7 blue screen of death with the alphanumeric code 0x0000006b can crash is the incorrect system behavior during user authorization, and specifically the damage to the Botcat.cache files. Since the manufacturer of the operating system releases updates and fixes, the error is corrected by installing service pack number one. Such an error is easily diagnosed and corrected, because there is only one reason for its appearance.
Stop 0x00000004 – an error caused by the computer’s RAM. This failure is also ambiguous and has many reasons for which a blue screen can pop up. Description of her INVALID_DATA_ACCESS_TRAP , that is, from this description, we understand that there is a problem with access to data. The phenomenon can be caused both by a lack of RAM for running applications, or by poor contact of RAM to the motherboard. The problem is eliminated by a whole range of actions to achieve the best result. In particular, installing the latest updates to the system, which are responsible for unloading unused software from memory. Formatting the memory can also work. And computer maintenance (cleaning connectors, contacts). A variant of RAM error 0x00000018 is misconfusion in the address space. The problem can be corrected by methods like the error above. If there are several memory sticks, you can remove some to identify faulty ones.
Stop 0x00000007 – an error associated with an incorrect configuration of the hard drive in the BIOS. This is not the compatibility of old IDE hard drives with the new AHCI standard. To get rid of it is quite simple, you need to do this by choosing the appropriate mode for the hard disk.
Analysis of memory dumps to analyze the causes of errors
Information and sufficient material for troubleshooting BSoD problems can be gleaned from small memory dumps generated by the operating system. To do this, Windows must have emergency dumping enabled. It is possible to create a complete memory dump, but it is more suitable for debugging application software and drivers by programmers. There are several software products for dump analysis. This is a utility from the manufacturer of Windows operating systems (Microsoft Kernel Debuger) and utilities from third-party developers. The analysis is a rather complicated process for an ordinary user and is interesting for specialists. It makes no sense to give a full decryption, it is individual for each program, but general information on errors is available on the Windows operating systems support site.